Safeguards against electoral fraud vs. accessibility and citizens’ convenience – Need for changes in the German electoral system

Irina Cojocaru, Information Society Development Institute, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova & State University of Moldova, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
Igor Cojocaru Information Society Development Institute, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova


Nowadays it has become clear that cybersecurity must be an integral and indivisible part of technological progress and it must be integrated at the core of ICTs. Almost all states around the world show their cybersecurity commitment and the Eastern Europe countries, including the Republic of Moldova are no exception. Moldova ranked globally 73rd (out of 165 countries) in the 2017 Global Cybersecurity Index by ITU, ahead of six other countries in the region. Nevertheless, we believe that cybersecurity is not sufficiently addresses by the academic community at the national level. The field of bibliometrics studies publication patterns by using quantitative analysis and statistics. This article aims to explore the level of research in cybersecurity at the national level and compare it with Eastern Europe countries’ level, using bibliometric analysis of scientific publications, authored by researches from Moldova. The study is based on data from the national database (National Bibliometric Instrument) with over 68.000 research publications and 2 international databases – Scopus Elsevier and Web of Science.


[1] AB RAZAK, M.F., BADRUL ANUAR, N., SALLEH, R. and FIRDAUS, A., The rise of “malware”: Bibliometric analysis of malware study, Journal of Network and Computer Applications, Volume 75, 2016, Pages 58-76, ISSN 1084-8045, .

[2] AKOKA, J., COMYN-WATTIAU, I., LAOUFI, N., Big Data and Cyber Security: A bibliometric study [online]. Workshop SCBC – 2015. Available:

[3] ANWAR, M.A., AL-DAIHANI, S., Literature on terrorism: A bibliometric analysis of articles published during 1981-1990. Malaysian Journal of Library & Information Science, Vol. 16, no. 2, August 2011: 33-43. Available:

[4] BALDWIN J., ALHAWI O.M.K., SHAUGHNESSY S., AKINBI A., DEHGHANTANHA A., (2018), Emerging from the Cloud: A Bibliometric Analysis of Cloud Forensics Studies. In: Dehghantanha A., Conti M., Dargahi T. (eds) Cyber Threat Intelligence. Advances in Information Security. Vol 70. Springer, Cham, DOI

[5] BRADEA,I., DELCEA, C., PAUN, R., Healthcare Risk Management Analysis – A Bibliometric Approach.. Journal of Eastern Europe Research in Business & Economics. Vol. 2015 (2015), Article ID 169472, 11 Pages. DOI: 10.5171/2015.169472

[6] Cybersecurity vs. Cyber Security: When, Why and How to Use the Term [online]. INFOSEC Island, 17.07.2013. Available:

[7] Cybersecurity: A Human Problem Masquerading as a Technical Problem [online]. Boston Consulting Group, 8.01.2018. Available:

[8] Do you know the difference between cyber security and information security? [online]. IT Governance Blog, 9.08.2018. Available:

[9] ELOVICI, Y., ROKACH, L., (2014). Reaction to New Security Threat Class. Available: https://arXiv:1406.3110v1

[10] GILL, J., OKERE, I., HADDADPAJOUH, H., DEHGHANTANHA, A., (2018). Mobile Forensics: A Bibliometric Analysis. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-73951-9_15

[11] Global Cybersecurity Index (GCI) 2017. © ITU 2017. ISBN 978-92-61-25071-3 (electronic version). Available:

[12] Instrumentul Bibliometric Național. IDSI © 2012-2019. Available:

[13] ISO/IEC 27032:2012. Information technology -- Security techniques -- Guidelines for cybersecurity. 1st ed. Publication date: 2012-07

[14] JALALI, M. S., RAZAK, S., GORDON, W., PERAKSLIS, E., MADNICK, S., (2018). Health care and cybersecurity: a bibliometric analysis of the literature. Journal of Medical Internet Research. Available:

[15] Law of the Republic of Moldova nr. 133 of 08.07.2011 on personal data protection. [online] Available:

[16] Law of the Republic of Moldova nr. 20 of 03.02.2009 on preventing and combating cybercrime. [online]. Available:

[17] LEAL, C., MEIRINHOS, G., LOUREIRO, M. & MARQUES, C. S., Cybersecurity Management, Intellectual Capital and Trust: A New Management Dilemma. In: ECIC 2017 - 9th European Conference on Intellectual Capital

[18] MAKAWANA P. R., JHAVERI R. H., (2018), A Bibliometric Analysis of Recent Research on Machine Learning for Cyber Security. In: Hu YC., Tiwari S., Mishra K., Trivedi M. (eds) Intelligent Communication and Computational Technologies. Lecture Notes in Networks and Systems, vol 19. Springer, Singapore.

[19] MINGERS, J., LEYDESDORFF, L., A review of theory and practice in scientometrics. In: European Journal of Operational Research. 2015, Elsevier, vol. 246(1), pages 1-19. Disponibil:

[20] Moldova Cybersecurity Week. [online]. Available:

[21] Moldova. © 2018 World Bank. Available:

[22] Moldova: State of Affairs Report [online]. Digital.Report, 18.04.2018. Available:

[23] NAI-FOVINO, I., NEISSE, R., 'LAZARI, A., RUZZANTE, G., POLEMI, N., FIGWER, M., European Cybersecurity Centres of Expertise Map - Definitions and Taxonomy. EUR 29332 EN, Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg, 2018, ISBN 978-92-79-92956-4, doi:10.2760/622400, JRC111441

[24] SALATINO, A., THIVIYAN T., MANNOCCI, A., OSBORNE, F., MOTTA, E., "The Computer Science Ontology: A Large-Scale Taxonomy of Research Areas." International Semantic Web Conference 2018, Monterey (CA), USA, 2018.

[25] SERAFIN PLASENCIA, M., GARCIA-VARGAS, G., GARCÍA CHITIVA, M., CAICEDO, M., CORREAN, J. C., (2018). Cyberbehavior: A Bibliometric Analysis. 10.31234/ DOI: 10.31234/

[26] SILVA, K. E., 2013. ‘Europe’s fragmented approach towards cyber security.’ Internet Policy Review 2(4). 12.10.2015. Available:

[27] Standard country or area codes for statistical use (M49). Methodology. UN Statistics Division. © 2019 United Nations. Available:

[28] Statistics in various area. [online]. National Bureau of Statistics of the Republic of Moldova, © 2019. Available:

[29] United Nations E-Government Survey. UNITED NATIONS, New York, 2018. eISBN: 978-92-1- 047227-2. Available:

[30] VAN DER MEULEN, N., A JO, E., SOESANTO, S., Cybersecurity in the European Union and Beyond: Exploring the Threats and Policy Responses. European Parliament, manuscript completed in September 2015. © European Union, Brussels, 2015. Available:


Central and Eastern European e|Dem and e|Gov Days 2019

Cyber Security and eGovernment
Proceedings of the Central and Eastern European E|Dem and E|Gov Days, May 2-3, 2019, Budapest
Facultas, 1. Ed., 536 p.
ISBN: 978-3-7089-1898-3,
ISBN: 978-3-903035-24-9

Editors: András Nemeslaki, Alexander Prosser, Dona Scola, Tamás Szádeczky